SALUTETIROIDE.IT GLOSSARY

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (hypophysis) secreting hormones.

NEEDLE BIOPSY
Non-invasive procedure allowing to remove a small sample of tissue from the thyroid that then undergoes cytologic examination. It is useful to detect the nodule identifying its benign or malignant nature.

CARNITINE
L-Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound carrying out several functions in the body. Studies show that in hyperthyroidism cases, Carnitine can affect the excessive thyroid hormones halting their action in the body.

THYROID ULTRASOUND
Together with blood tests, it is the most rapid tool for investigating thyroid shape and volume in details. Sometimes it is associated with colour doppler ultrasound which assesses the gland degree of vascularisation to highlight possible lesions, thyroid nodules, swollen lymph nodes, thyroiditis.

ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Glands secreting hormones directly into the blood, such as the pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands.

GOITER
Thyroid increase in size not necessarily associated with alterations of thyroid functioning. It can be endemic, sporadic or familial: simple or multinodular.

SUPPLEMENT OR NUTRACEUTICAL
Food products aimed at integrating a common diet and representing a concentrated source of nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, or other substances with a nutritional and physiological effect, especially but not limited to amino acids, essential fatty acids, fibre and various plant and herbal extracts, both alone and in combination, in dose form.

IODINE
Chemical element used by our body to produce thyroid hormones.

RADIOACTIVE IODINE
Iodine -131 is also called radioiodine. It is a radioisotope used in radiodiagnostics (scintigraphy) and to treat hyperthyroidism.

HYPERTHYROIDISM
Pathology characterised by an excessive production of thyroid hormones.

PITUITARY GLAND (HYPOPHYSIS)
Endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, of very small size, shaped in two lobes (adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis) regulating endocrine and metabolic activity of the body, by secreting numerous hormones.

HYPOTHALAMUS
The hypothalamus is a portion of the central nervous systems located between the two brain hemispheres. It monitors both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system supervising the production of pituitary hormones.

HYPOTHYROIDISM
Pathology characterised by thyroid hormones insufficient action which results in soft tissue damage.

LEVOTHYROXINE
Drug used in hypothyroidism hormone replacement therapy and in TSH suppressive therapy.

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
Abnormal immune response attacking the body itself and causing functional alterations of the organ involved.

GRAVES’ DISEASE
It is an autoimmune disease causing hyperthyroidism due to autoantibodies which stimulate thyroid hyperactivity. One of the most evident symptoms is exophthalmos, a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.

MYO-INOSITOL
Inositol is a cycle polyol with a 6-carbon atom structure. Scientific studies prove that myoinositol works as TSH mediator.

HORMONE
Biologically active substance secreted by endocrine glands.
It is a sort of “messenger” carried in the blood; it regulates specific cell functions.

SELENIUM
Antioxidant mineral determining thyroid good function as an essential ingredient of the enzyme system turning thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3).

THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY
Diagnosis based on the administration of low doses of radioactive substances which spread to the tissues creating a detailed image viewable by a special device and allowing to detect possible thyroid diseases.

HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
Hormone therapy

THYROID
Endocrine gland placed at the front of the neck: it is fundamental to the body functioning.

T4 OR THYROXINE
Thyroid hormone. Precursor of T3

T3 OR TRIIODOTHYRONINE
Thyroid hormone.

TRH (THYROTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE)
Hormone produced by the hypothalamus; it regulates TSH secretion.

TSH (THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE)
Hormone stimulating the thyroid It is secreted by the pituitary gland and regulates the production of T3 and T4. It is the most sensitive diagnostic marker allowing to detect alterations of thyroid functioning.